The Ghana flag makes use of the Pan-African colors - the red stripe represents the blood spilt during Ghana's struggle for independence; the yellow stripe symbolizes the mineral wealth of the country; and the green represents the vegetation and fertility of the nation. The black five-pointed star symbolizes African freedom and the African people. Ghana was the first African nation to feature these colors.
The flag was designed by Mrs. Theodosia Okoh to replace the flag of the United Kingdom upon attainment of independence in 1957. It consists of the Pan-African colours of Ethiopia, i.e, red, gold, and green, in horizontal stripes with a black five-pointed star in the centre of the gold stripe. The Ghanaian flag was the first African flag after the flag of Ethiopia to feature these colours.
The red represents the blood of those who died in the country's struggle for independence, the gold represents the mineral wealth of the country, the green symbolises the country's rich forests and natural wealth, and the black star stands for the lodestar of African freedom. (The black star was adopted from the flag of the Black Star Line, a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey that operated from 1919 to 1922, and gives the Ghana national football team their nickname, the Black Stars).
The civil ensign is a red flag with the national flag in a black-fimbriated canton.