The national flag of the Republic of Chad is a vertical tricolor consisting (left to right) of a blue, a yellow and a red field. The flag colors combine the colors of the flag of France with some traditional Pan-African colors. (Blue was substituted for green to avoid confusion with neighboring states). The basic design is the same as that of the flag of Romania, the flag of Andorra, the flag of Moldova, and the flag of Queen's University in Ontario, Canada.
Blue symbolises, officially, the sky, hope, and water; yellow the sun and the desert to the north of the country; red progress, unity, and sacrifice. Red also recalls the blood shed for independence.
The flag was adopted by law # 59/13 for the autonomous republic and retained on independence in 1960, and in the constitution of 1962. Despite many political upheavals within Chad since independence the flag has not been changed. This may be because the flag is not associated with any of the main power rivals within Chad, having had no sense of national identity before independence, and to a lesser extent after independence.