The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Saka Merah Putih ("The Red and White") in Indonesian, is based on the flag of the 13th century Majapahit empire. The flag itself was introduced and hoisted in public at the Indonesian Independence Day ceremony, on August 17, 1945. The design of the flag has remained the same ever since.
The design of the flag is simple with two equal horizontal bands, red (top) and white (bottom) with an overall ratio of 2:3. The flag is similar to the flag of Poland and flag of Singapore and is identical to the flag of Monaco (except for the ratio). Red represents courage, while white represents the purity of intent.
Traditionally, most Indonesians have used red and white as their sacred colours, mixing the colour of sugar (the red colour comes from palm sugar or gula aren) and rice (white). Inarguably, until today, both of these are the major components of daily Indonesian cuisine or cooking. Apparently, the Javanese's Majapahit Kingdom also used this concept and designed their flag as red and white. Moreover, the red and white colours are also used for Indonesia's distant cousin, Madagascar's as the colour of the national flag.